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Democracy and Human Rights
Democratic change and improved respect for human rights are essential for people living in poverty and under oppression, enabling them to influence their living conditions and hold governments accountable. Only one third of the world’s population is today living under such conditions. In recent years a trend towards more authoritarian forms of governance has been seen globally. Sida contributes to the protection of democracy and continued democratisation through its programmes and projects in the thematic area of Democracy and Human Rights, amounting to SEK 6.0 billion in 2022. This makes democracy and human rights Sida’s largest thematic area, equivalent to approximately 25 percent of Sida’s total disbursements.
Sustainable Ocean Economy
More than 3 billion people rely on the ocean for their livelihoods and the ocean contributes to poverty eradication, sustained economic growth and food security and climate regulation. The sustainability of our oceans is under severe threat from pollution and eutrophication, unsustainable fishing practices, and from effects from climate change such as ocean warming and acidification. Sweden promotes strengthened efforts for protection and restoration, sustainable management and use of marine, coastal and freshwater ecosystems, biodiversity, natural resources and ecosystem services and also cleaner water and oceans, reduced emissions of pollutants and reduced littering. Sida is targeting the most vulnerable coastal communities while ensuring the ocean economy is developed sustainably for the benefit of people and nature. Sida’s financial support to a sustainable ocean economy was approximately SEK 733 million in 2022. This accounts for about 2.9 percent of Sida’s total disbursements, steadily increasing over the last five years.
Sida’s support to the World Bank Group in 2022
In 2022 Sida disbursed SEK 1.15 billion to the World Bank Group (WBG). Sida’s financial support is mainly directed through a number of trust funds and financial intermediary funds. These funds have a global, regional or country focus with either a specific thematic or geographical aim.
Evaluation of the International Training Program (ITP) 309 Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (CCMA) implemented by SMHI, Swedish Metereological and Hydrological Institute (2015–2023)
The report presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the evaluation of ITP 309, the Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation (CCMA) Programme funded by Sida CAPDEV and implemented by SMHI, which targets 10 African countries with a focus on water and agriculture. The main objective of the evaluation was to determine the relevance, effectiveness and practical application of the programme as well as its impact on cross-cutting issues such as gender, poverty, human rights and anti-corruption. The evaluation found that the design of the programme was relevant, effective and in line with Swedish cooperation strategies and concluded that the programme had successfully made a measurable contribution to the specific objectives of the Theory of Change. The programme achieved the expected results in terms of increased awareness of the CCMA, capacity building in key organisations and implementation of activities. At the same time, the evaluation also found that cross-cutting issues took up little space in the programme and had minimal impact. According to the recommendations, the programme could be strengthened by better cooperation with other development stakeholders.
Impact Evaluation of EBRD’s Women in Business Western Balkans and Eastern Partnership countries 2014–2021
This report presents the impact evaluation of the EBRD programme “Women in Business Western Balkans and Eastern Partnership 2014-2021”. The WiB programme aimed to develop the untapped economic sub-segment of women-led small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The method to achieve results is dedicated financing, technical advice to participating financial institutions and direct support to woman-led SMEs. Sida mainly supported Advice for Small Businesses (ASB) during the implementation period, but the evaluation covers all programme activities. The report contains the key findings, conclusions, and recommendations related to the programme’s effectiveness, impact, sustainability and monitoring systems. WiB’s output level results ensuing from strengthening the capacities of women to grow their business and also the strengthening capacities of PFIs to offer women-oriented lending products have been positive. They confirm EBRD’s strength and value added in working with such stakeholders. The challenge is to ensure that investments across these streams of support transform into more sustainable outcome level results. Transformative potential and sustainability of WIB’s results are muted to some extent by a narrow pool of beneficiaries, fragmented approaches and recurring crises.
Evaluation of Environment, Climate and Energy Efficiency portfolio supported by the Embassy of Sweden in Kyiv
The evaluation concluded that investments in district heating and energy efficiency investments led to more environmentally and energy efficient services, but considering the scale of war destructions, it is likely that these have to some extent been damaged by the war and underlying reforms are still incomplete. Institutional support and core grants to small, regionally based civil society organisations working in environmental fields has been promising. Public sector cooperation, beyond the municipal energy projects, was limited and hampered by inadequate capacity and low priority to environment. EU association did not so far provide political momentum to the level expected and did not create strong incentives improving environmental performance – however with the war this is changing. Donor coordination did not work well in environment compared to other sectors such as energy. The evaluation recommends that Sweden’s future support should be guided by the National Recovery Plan and its update. Sweden can play a constructive role through balancing its support to investment, capacity and policy during post war reconstruction and the emergence of the new economy. In response to Ukrainian request, Sweden will need to prioritise and take difficult decisions on phasing out of relatively successful areas such as district heating and engaging with the challenging area of waste management. A number of suggestions for how to manage these transitions are given.
Integrated Conflict Perspective in Contribution Management – A Technical Note
Conflicting views exist in all societies. If managed constructively and non-violently, conflicts can lead to positive development. At times, however, conflicts give rise to tensions that may be expressed violently. A large part of Sida’s contributions are implemented in situations of violent conflict, be it on local, national or regional level. In addition, there are many post-conflict situations where root causes of the violent conflict have not been addressed and continue to create tensions. Sida is also engaged in many contexts where incompatibilities or disagreements arising from, for example, diverging opinions, objectives, and needs are unaddressed. With this in mind, all contexts in which Sida and its partners operate demonstrate factors relevant to conflict sensitivity. In line with the above, the Swedish government’s Instruction to Sida states that all its development cooperation should be based on an integrated conflict perspective. To Sida, the term ‘conflict perspective’ and conflict sensitivity are synonymous. Conflict sensitivity builds on the recognition that humanitarian assistance and development cooperation (including peacebuilding) become part of that context and will have effects on it, for better or for worse. This means that programmes will inevitably impact on political and conflict dynamics regardless of whether they actively seek to influence these factors. With this comes a responsibility for all actors to take measures to minimise unintended negative impacts and maximise positive impacts on conflict dynamics within the contribution’s sphere of influence. This applies to all engagements, whether they are focused on directly addressing conflict or not. It applies to all sectors and thematic areas at local, national, regional, global levels and to different partners, such as civil society organisations, multilateral agencies, institutions and private sector actors.
Guidance on Conflict Analysis – A Technical Note
INTRODUCTION A conflict analysis is a structured analysis to understand conflicts and risk of conflicts. It is not the same as context analysis, which seeks to understand the broader situation. The conflict exists within the context and is part of it, but has its own logic and dynamic. Conflict analysis can help Sida and its partners to better understand how development cooperation is affected by, and has an effect on, potential or ongoing violent conflicts. Sida commissions and develops conflict analyses for different purposes, and has experience of using different tools and methods for conflict analysis. Rather than pointing to any one specific tool, this Technical Note (TN) recognises that there are many useful tools available. What this TN seeks to do is to provide general advice about what to think about when commissioning or conducting conflict analyses at Sida, including examples of questions to include. The first part of the TN highlights a few things that are particularly useful to consider when commissioning or conducting conflict analysis. This includes identifying the conflict that is to be analysed, and defining the purpose, usage, level and scope of the conflict analysis. It also emphasises the importance of evidence-based, participatory and gender responsive analysis. Finally it contains a reminder that the process itself ought to be conflict sensitive and kept sufficiently updated to stay relevant.
Root Causes of Violent Conflict – An Evidence-Based Overview
In 2019, Sida conducted an external evaluation of its support to peacebuilding in conflict and post-conflict contexts. This evaluation recommended Sida to enhance its focus on root causes and drivers of conflict (as well as drivers of peace) and to link these specifically to the expected results of its peacebuilding work. While root causes of armed conflicts are highly contextual, this evidence brief discusses a selection of general root causes of conflict as supported by research with a strong focus on empirical evidence. The brief can be used by Sida managers and staff as a starting point in the preparation of a context-specific conflict analysis; in analysis of the peace and security dimension of Sida’s multidimensional poverty analysis (MDPA) and/or in the development of theories of change in the operationalisation of strategies. The evidence brief mainly focuses on state-based internal armed conflict. The number of state-based armed conflicts is on a historic high and most of them are internal.5 This type of conflict is common in the contexts that Sida is engaged in.
Utvärdering av genomförandet av strategin för kapacitetsutveckling, partnerskap och metoder som stöder agenda 2030 för hållbar utveckling
This final report synthesises the results of an evaluation commissioned by Sida to evaluate the implementation of KAPAME’s strategy (2020-2022) to develop capacities, partnerships and methods in support of the Agenda 2030. The purpose of the evaluation was to assist Sida in exploring and developing the strategy, provide recommendations for future work, pursue the implementation of KAPAME’s portfolio of contributions, and ensure mutual learning and adaptation through co-creation processes. The report contains recommendations for Sida, including developing a more detailed theory of change for the next KAPAME strategy, defining key concepts such as “system-level results,” “partnership,” “innovation,” and “synergies,” implementing goals more effectively and coherently in each of the four strategy areas, and continuing to develop the MEL system to enable further effective strategy implementation. Overall, the process of this evaluation was a learning experience and provided an opportunity for Sida to improve its monitoring and the ability to analyse results, discuss strategic choices, enhance its internal structures and systems with respect to the implementation of the KAPAME strategy.
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