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Publications on development cooperation

Find publications, evaluations and issue briefs from Sida on topics related to international development cooperation. You can download the publications free of charge.

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Sida’s handling of suspicions of corruption and irregularities in international development co-operation

Corruption is one of the biggest obstacles to reducing poverty and oppression. Corruption diminishes social trust and hinders economic growth and investment. When people lack trust in authorities, democracy weakens, and the misuse of funds limits access to health care, education, housing, food, water and sanitation. Sida’s work against corruption is a vital and integral part of our work for development, poverty reduction and against oppression. Many countries where we operate are severely affected by corruption. Several of our partner countries appear at the bottom of Transparency International’s corruption index. Our work against corruption as an obstacle to development is therefore very urgent. It is equally important that we prevent and deal with corruption impacting our own operations. This report considers such cases. Transparency is an antidote to corruption and Sida as an agency must facilitate scrutiny and thus demonstrate our management of risks and instances where Sida’s operations are exposed to corruption. To this end, we have published our annual corruption report since 2009. We define corruption broadly. Most common are financial irregularities, such as funds used in ways other than as agreed with Sida or with one of Sida’s many partner organisations, or funds embezzled using false invoices and receipts. But Sida also includes various forms of abuse of power, such as recruiting unqualified candidates based on their family or other private ties to the recruiter. Sexual exploitation, abuse and harassment (SEAH) can also be included in the statistics concerning irregularities in some instances. In the context of the Coronavirus pandemic, some aspects of this work were made more difficult by the fact that it became more challenging to travel and to follow-up or audit activities on site. This contributed to adaptations in our methods and to the digitisation of parts of the investigation work. One result of this work is that, for the first time, we have been able to close more cases than we opened. We are constantly improving our procedures, hiring more investigators to improve their availability and developing and publicising our whistleblowing functions. A large part of the increase in the number of cases is due to the fact that more people in partner organisations dare to report suspicions and know how to do so, with great confidence in our management. They know they can make a report without risk to themselves. We have also confirmed many suspected instances of irregularities. Of the 374 cases closed in 2021, irregularities were confirmed in more than 60 percent (228 cases). With transparency and persistence, we continue to work towards eradicating corruption connected to development assistance and helping to reduce the incidence of corruption in the countries where we work. Together with our partner organisations, we continue our work to strengthen the rule of law and ensure equal opportunity all over the world.


Publication type: -
Language: English
Year: 2023
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Final evaluation of the core support to the Kosovo Foundation for Cultural Heritage without Borders (CHwB Kosovo) 2016–2022

The project being evaluated provides core support to the Kosovo Foundation for Cultural Heritage without Borders (CHwB Kosovo) for the implementation of its strategic plan. The evaluation is intended to provide Sida with an assessment of the progress achieved by the core support 2016-2021 and the implementation of the Strategic Plans of CHwB Kosovo. It will also provide what lessons have been learned and what impact the support has generated. The evaluation concluded that CHwB Kosovo is a highly professional organisation delivering its activities in a collaborative and effective manner. The evaluation notes areas of improvement in the application of strategies and approaches to gender equality, disability inclusion and conflict resolution, and in aspects of reporting, including a better linking of reporting on outputs and outcomes to the project’s intended impact and overall goal.


Language: English
Year: 2023
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Evaluation of the Afghanistan Analysts Network (AAN)’s Programme 2020–2024

This report presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the evaluation of the policy research organisation Afghanistan Analysts Network (AAN). AAN has been supported by Sida since its establishment in 2009. Considering the establishment of the new regime in Kabul in August 2021, AAN and Sida see a need to develop and set new priorities and objectives. The purpose of the evaluation was therefore to provide AAN information and recommendations of value for the design and implementation of a new programme. Data for the evaluation was collected through a mix of methods. AAN’s outcome areas and the thematic focus of its work have largely been relevant. Overall, AAN has delivered to a high degree against its stated outputs, which are clearly defined in quantifiable terms, and thus has a high degree of effectiveness. The dramatic challenges in 2021 resulted in some reduction in output, although the effects of this are mostly apparent in 2022. The evaluation team’s interviews provided strong evidence that key stakeholder groups are better informed as a result of AAN’s work. The evaluation puts forward seven recommendations to AAN.


Language: English
Year: 2023
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Evaluation of Guarantee Instrument and Technical Assistance Offered to Enat Bank to Increase Access to Capital For Women-Owned/Managed Small and Medium Enterprises in Ethiopia

This report presents the findings of the mid-term evaluation of the Swedish-supported Enat Bank Loan Guarantee Facility (LGF) in Ethiopia. Commissioned by Sida and undertaken by Tana Copenhagen, it assesses the performance of the facility thus far and provides recommendations for future improvement of the support to women-led Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs). LGF is a key component of the operationalization of Sida’s new development assistance strategy in Ethiopia. The team found that the LGF only supports women-owned SMEs in the formal sectors, and the number of loans processed is still relatively low. As such, including enterprises located in the informal sector or with creditworthiness challenges would be a critical step in significantly expanding the access of women-owned SMEs to financing, and subsequently, transitioning many into the formal sector by providing crucial support for formalization, financial literacy, bookkeeping and tax status regulations. Recommendations are given for Sida to continue its support of the LGF, with a focus on expansion and programme design, in an effort for women entrepreneurs to experience economic growth and financial freedom.


Language: English
Year: 2023
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Evaluation of the impact of the support to Karibu Tanzania Organization in the Education Sector

Karibu Tanzania Organization (KTO) is a Tanzanian NGO working as an umbrella organization for 54 Folk Development Colleges (FDCs), which offer vocational education and lifelong learning and contribute to social and economic development in local communities. The evaluation should serve as input to the Swedish Embassy/Sida and KTO for planning of a possible new phase with Sida funding to KTO. The evaluation was mainly qualitative with analysis based on interviews with KTO, ministries, and FDC teaching staff and students in 19 FDCs. The evaluation concluded that both the Sida support to KTO and the KTO support to the FDCs are largely relevant. The operations of KTO are efficient, adapting to the available funding. The three FDC programmes supported meet the need of the students, giving opportunities for further education for young females dropping out of the ordinary school system. FDC students report increased self-esteem, confidence and hopes for the future. The vocational FDC studies increase possibilities for post-college income-generation. KTO operations are not sustainable today with Sida as the main funder. It is recommended that Sida gives core funding in a possible next support phase. KTO is however advised against spreading activities too wide, but rather consolidate efforts. KTO must strengthen the fundraising capacity in the staffing and boost efforts in diversifying the donor base.


Language: English
Year: 2023
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Evaluation of the project “Building Market Value Based Property Tax in Albania (ProTax)”

The subject of this evaluation is the implementation of the Property Tax Project in Albania (2018-2022). The evaluation includes the involvement and performance of the Swedish Tax Agency as key agency supporting the project owner, Ministry of Finance and Economy (MFE), and the cooperation with the General Directorate of Property Tax (GDPT). The evaluation finds that the project contributes to an important need to reform property tax in Albania. However, the project was not designed based on a proper interestand needs analysis. Since its start, the project has suffered multiple setbacks and delays resulting in redesign of the project. The project is not likely to deliver its key outcomes as anticipated during the project lifetime. It is recommended that the Swedish Embassy and the STA engage in a closer dialogue with MFE and GDPT, to see how the change in scope can include policy and strategy level interventions. The project partners should address the challenges in getting access to data from the Albanian National State Cadastre Agency to populate the ProTax IT systems. There should also be a closer involvement of the municipalities in the implementation of a next project phase.


Language: English
Year: 2023
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Sida’s climate finance 2021

This one-pager provides a summary of Sida’s contribution to the Swedish annual report to the EU regarding climate finance distributed in 2021.


Publication type: -
Language: English
Year: 2023
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Sida’s approach to Partner Organisatons’ Capacity to Prevent and Respond to Sexual Exploitation, Abuse and Sexual Harassment (SEAH)

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to Sida’s partner organisations on how Sida assesses their capacity to prevent and respond to sexual exploitation, abuse and sexual harassment (SEAH).


Publication type: -
Language: English
Year: 2023
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Education and Dimensions of Poverty

Education is a human right and SDG 4 aims to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. The purposes of this brief is to highlight the main connections between education inequality and poverty within the four dimensions in the multidimensional poverty analysis (MDPA). It also gives guidance and tools assessing education as a the key areas in the poverty analysis. The brief is based on the different MDPAs that have been prepared at country, regional and global level as part of the preparation of new cooperation strategies.


Publication type: -
Language: English
Year: 2022
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Mid-term Evaluation of Portfolio Guarantee Georgia between Sida and TBC Bank

This report presents the findings of the Mid Term Evaluation of Portfolio Guarantee Georgia between Sida and TBC Bank. The purpose of the guarantee is to facilitate increased lending by the TBC Bank to MSMEs and start-ups, improving both the conditions of and increasing the quantity of these loans, thereby stimulating economic growth in Georgia. The report assesses progress of the loan portfolio guarantee, including its financial and development additionality to inform decisions on the value added of increasing the guarantee amount. The guarantee continues to be relevant for supporting Swedish priorities for reform cooperation in Eastern Europe, and for supporting Georgian government priorities regarding economic development and job creation. The facility is serving as an efficient tool for mobilising private sector funds for Georgian MSMEs. Under the existing limit of the revolving facility, the amount of additional new loans will be constrained to the repayments on previous loans. There is a substantial demand for additional loans to similar viable borrowers, and any possible increase in the facility limit would help provide bank financing for their investments and growth.


Language: English
Year: 2022
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3805 hits on 381 pages