Education for Sustainable Development:Research Overview
Arjen E. J. Wals , Geke Kieft
This paper outlines some of the main characteristics of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), particularly in the context of ‘development’ and ‘globalization’. It addresses the various interpretations and meanings of ESD, shows how these relate environmental education and emerging educations that overlap with SD-issues and introduces sustainability competence as a key outcome of ESD. The paper also outlines some regional trends that affect the way ESD manifests itself in the various countries and regions around the world. Some key developments affecting ESD are introduced, including globalization, the rise of the information and knowledge society, the utilization of diversity and the need for the inclusion of marginalized groups and perspectives.