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Corruption perceived to be high in Sida partner countries

Updated: 26 January 2017

Among Sida's partner countries, Georgia and Rwanda got the highest scores while crisis countries score low. Corruption remains a key obstacle to development.

On January 25, Transparency International published its annual Corruption Perception Index (CPI). The CPI is a composite index, based on a number of surveys and expert assessments, of the perceptions of business people and country experts of the level public sector corruption in 176 countries. CPI scores ranges from 0 for highly corrupt to 100 for least corrupt.

The scores in Sida partner countries from 2012 to 2016 are listed in Table 1 below. The great merit of Transparency International and the CPI is that they have helped put corruption on the international agenda.

Corruption is perceived to be high in the 33 Sida partner countries for which data is available (the average score is 30.7). The lowest scores are for Somalia (10), South Sudan (11) Sudan (14), Afghanistan (15), and Iraq (17), all of them counties going through crises. Georgia (57) and Rwanda (54) got the highest scores, better than Italy (47) and Greece (44).

Sweden (88) is ranked fourth after Denmark (90), New Zealand (90) and Finland (89).

World Bank indicators confirm findings

The World Bank Institute's Worldwide Governance Indicator for Control of Corruption (CoC) is an alternative composite, perception-based index. The CoC ranges from -2.50 for very poor control of corruption to +2.50 for excellent control of corruption. Selected CoC scores for Sida partner countries 1996 to 2015 are in Table 2 below.

The CoC supports the CPI's findings. Control of corruption is relatively weak in the 34 partner countries for which corruption is available (the average score was -0.73 in 2015). The weakest countries were South Sudan (-1.71), Somalia (-1.37), Sudan (-1.50), Iraq (-1.37) and Afghanistan (-1.34) and the strongest Rwanda (+0.67) and Georgia (+0.64).

Combating corruption takes time

You can read articles and reports arguing that small changes in the CPI from year to year are important. Sida though is interested in how corruption affects people living in poverty – its effects on poverty and oppression – and important changes in these effects require fundamental changes in power relations and in the governance institutions that should be preventing corruption. Such fundamental changes take time.

The formula for calculating the CPI was redesigned in 2012, and therefore the CPI not ideal for comparisons over longer time periods. On the other hand, the CoC has been calculated since 1996 (although sometimes the earliest estimates are less reliable than later ones).

In most of Sida's partner countries, the CoC score has not changed much over a longer period of time. In 16 of 34 countries the change 1996-2015 was less than 0.25 of 5.00 possible points in 16 countries and less than 0.50 points in 19 countries. Seen in this light, remarkable progress in fighting corruption has been made in Georgia (+2.03 from 1996 to 2015) and Rwanda (+1.60). Liberia (+1.13) and Serbia (0.73) seem also to be doing well. Corruption seems to be worsening alarmingly in Zimbabwe (-1.04), Moldova (-0.68), and Mozambique (-0.43).

In sum, these indicators suggest that corruption remains a key obstacle to reducing poverty and to achieving the Global Goals for Sustainable Development by 2030.

 

Table 1. Corruption Perception Index in Sida partner countries

The CPI-score ranges from 0 for highest perceived corruption to 100 for lowest perceived corruption.

Country/Territory

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

Afghanistan

8

8

12

11

15

Albania

33

31

33

36

39

Bangladesh

26

27

25

25

26

Belarus

31

29

31

32

40

Bolivia

34

34

35

34

33

Bosnia & Herzegovina

42

42

39

38

39

Burkina Faso

38

38

38

38

42

Cambodia

22

20

21

21

21

Colombia

36

36

37

37

37

DR Congo

21

22

22

22

21

Ethiopia

33

33

33

33

34

Georgia

52

49

52

52

57

Guatemala

33

29

32

28

28

Iraq

18

16

16

16

17

Kenya

27

27

25

25

26

Kosovo

34

33

33

33

36

Liberia

41

38

37

37

37

Mali

34

28

32

35

32

Moldova

36

35

35

33

30

Mozambique

31

30

31

31

27

Myanmar

15

21

21

22

28

Russia

28

28

27

29

29

Rwanda

53

53

49

54

54

Serbia

39

42

41

40

42

Somalia

8

8

8

8

10

South Sudan

n/a

14

15

15

11

Sudan

13

11

11

12

14

Tanzania

35

33

31

30

32

Turkey

49

50

45

42

41

Uganda

29

26

26

25

25

Ukraine

26

25

26

27

29

Zambia

37

38

38

38

38

Zimbabwe

20

21

21

21

22

for comparison: Sweden

88

89

87

89

88

Country/Territory

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

 

Table 2. Control of Corruption in Sida partner countries

The CoC ranges from -2.50 for very poor control of corruption to +2.50 for excellent control of corruption

Country/Territory

1996

2000

2005

2010

2014

2015

Afghanistan

-1,85

-1,91

-1,46

-1,62

-1,33

-1,34

Albania

-1,09

-0,82

-0,75

-0,49

-0,55

-0,44

Bangladesh

-0,73

-0,94

-1,41

-1,02

-0,91

-0,88

Belarus

-0,93

-0,50

-0,87

-0,73

-0,32

-0,37

Bolivia

-0,90

-0,37

-0,76

-0,44

-0,64

-0,68

Bosnia & Herzegovina

-0,35

-0,49

-0,20

-0,32

-0,28

-0,37

Burkina Faso

0,22

-0,14

-0,09

-0,39

-0,53

-0,34

Cambodia

-0,96

-0,85

-1,18

-1,23

-1,08

-1,04

Colombia

-0,49

-0,41

-0,12

-0,41

-0,39

-0,29

DR Congo

-2,06

-1,57

-1,43

-1,42

-1,29

-1,25

Ethiopia

-1,15

-0,49

-0,77

-0,70

-0,43

-0,41

Georgia

-1,39

-0,88

-0,36

-0,12

0,74

0,64

Guatemala

-0,82

-0,68

-0,63

-0,48

-0,70

-0,71

Iraq

-1,53

-1,47

-1,46

-1,31

-1,34

-1,37

Kenya

-1,03

-0,95

-0,97

-0,94

-0,94

-1,01

Kosovo

n/a

n/a

-0,58

-0,62

-0,45

-0,52

Liberia

-1,74

-1,37

-1,04

-0,53

-0,78

-0,61

Mali

-0,44

-0,66

-0,40

-0,65

-0,72

-0,65

Moldova

-0,20

-0,54

-0,64

-0,69

-0,85

-0,88

Mozambique

-0,36

-0,40

-0,54

-0,43

-0,70

-0,79

Myanmar

-1,41

-1,31

-1,56

-1,68

-0,92

-0,89

Palestine

-0,93

-0,97

-0,98

-0,34

-0,57

-0,70

Russia

-1,02

-0,92

-0,78

-1,06

-0,87

-0,86

Rwanda

-0,93

-0,65

-0,74

0,46

0,83

0,67

Serbia

-1,03

-1,12

-0,38

-0,29

-0,19

-0,24

Somalia

-1,74

-1,78

-1,68

-1,74

-1,69

-1,62

South Sudan

n/a

n/a

n/a

-0,77

-1,61

-1,71

Sudan

-1,28

-0,80

-1,45

-1,26

-1,45

-1,50

Tanzania

-1,03

-0,95

-0,65

-0,54

-0,80

-0,72

Turkey

-0,23

-0,33

-0,02

0,03

-0,12

-0,11

Uganda

-0,60

-0,85

-0,85

-0,90

-1,10

-1,05

Ukraine

-1,03

-1,07

-0,69

-0,98

-1,00

-0,98

Zambia

-1,03

-0,85

-0,79

-0,57

-0,41

-0,41

Zimbabwe

-0,25

-0,95

-1,28

-1,31

-1,39

-1,29

for comparison: Sweden

2,31

2,40

2,01

2,32

2,14

2,25

Country/Territory

1996

2000

2005

2010

2014

2015


Page owner: Communication Unit

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